Absolute References in Excel reference the same cell(s), no matter where the formula is copied in the worksheet.

AVERAGE function returns the average (or arithmetic mean) of a group of numbers.

CONCAT function joins together different pieces of text into one string of text.

COUNT function counts the number of cells in a range that contain numerical values.

COUNTIF function counts the number of cells in a range that meet one specified criteria.

COUNTIFS function counts the number of rows or columns in a range that meet multiple specified criteria.

Drop Down Lists let you specify a list of data that a user can pick from to populate a cell.

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FIND function searches for a case-specific substring within a string of text and returns the substring's position.

HLOOKUP function returns a corresponding value beneath a specified lookup value in a table.

The Format Painter lets you quickly and easily copy formatting from one cell to another.

IF function lets you add logical decisions to your Excel spreadsheet, and return different values based on whether a condition is true or false.

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INDEX function returns the value from a cell in a list at a specified position.

LARGE and SMALL functions returns the n

^{th}largest or smallest value from a group of numerical values, such as the 2^{nd}largest, or the 3^{rd}smallest values.LEFT function returns a specified number of the leftmost characters of a string of text.

LEN function returns the length of a text string in number of characters.

LEN, LEFT, RIGHT, and MID functions returns different sections of a string of text, such as the leftmost 5 characters, or other slices of text.

Logical Functions (AND, OR, XOR, NOT) return true or false based on different combinations of conditions.

Logical Operators (Greater Than, Less Than, Equal To, Not Equal To, and others) compare two values and return true or false.

MATCH function returns the position of a specified value in a list. MATCH is often paired with INDEX to create a lookup more flexible than VLOOKUP.

MID function returns a substring of text from within the middle of a larger string of text.

MIN and MAX functions return the minimum and maximum numerical values from a group of numbers.

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SUBSTITUTE function replaces a string of text with another string of text.

SUM function adds together different numerical values into a total.

SUMIF function adds together all the numerical values which meet a user-specified criterion.

SUMIFS function adds together all the numerical values which meet multiple user-specified criteria.

TEXTJOIN function joins different strings of text with a common delimiter or separator between each string.

TODAY function returns the current date.

UPPER, LOWER, & PROPER functions change the case of text to uppercase, lowercase, and proper case.

VLOOKUP function returns a corresponding value to the right of a specified lookup value in a table.

XLOOKUP function returns a corresponding value from a table, combining VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP.

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